Bought and Sold resources

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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in New York City
Center for Court Innovation, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities
Urban Institute

Evaluation of Services for Domestic Minor Victims of Human Trafficking
RTI International

Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases
Northeastern University, Urban Institute

Identifying Effective Counter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the U.S.: Legislative, Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work
Texas Christian University, Northeastern University, Colorado College

Mapping the Market for Sex with Trafficked Minor Girls in Minneapolis: Structures, Functions, and. Patterns.
University of Minnesota Urban Research and Outreach-Engagement Center

Measuring the Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego
University of San Diego, Point Loma Nazarene University

New laws but few cases: Understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases
Crime, Law and Social Change

No Love for Children: Reciprocity, Science, and Engagement in the Study of Child Sex Trafficking
Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking

Ordinary or Peculiar Men? Comparing the Customers of Prostitutes With a Nationally Representative Sample of Men
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology

Prosecuting Human Trafficking Cases: Lessons Learned and Promising Practices
ICF International

Prostitution 2.0: The Changing Face of Sex Work
University of Iowa

Review of Existing Estimates of Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States and Recommendations for Improving Research and Measurement of Human Trafficking
Amy Farrell, Jack McDevitt, Noam Perry, Stephanie Fahy, Kate Chamberlain, William Adams, Colleen Owens, Meredith Dank, Michael Shively, Ryan Kling, and Kristin Wheeler. Final Report to Humanity United, 2009.

Sex Workers Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Sexual Exploitation and HIV Risk: A Qualitative Study in Tijuana, Mexico

Structural and Environmental Barriers to Condom Use Negotiation With Clients Among Female Sex Workers: Implications for HIV-Prevention Strategies and Policy
American Journal of Public Health

Youth Involvement in the Sex Trade
Center for Court Innovation


Domestic minor sex trafficking: Beyond victims and villains
Alexandra Lutnick

Girls Like Us
Rachel Lloyd

Somebody’s Daughter: The Hidden Story of America’s Prostituted Children and the Battle to Save Them
Julian Sher


Child Sex Trafficking Fact Sheet
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Resources for the Prevention of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking
Abt Associates

Sex Trafficking in the U.S.: A Closer Look at U.S. Citizen Victims
Polaris Project

Learn About Sex Work: Further Reading
Sex Workers Outreach Project

State Law Survey: Prohibiting Criminalization of Juvenile Sex Trafficking Victims Under State Prostitution Laws
Shared Hope International


2014 Crime in the United States Report
Criminal Justice Information Services Division

Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010
Bureau of Justice Statistics

Human Trafficking: Data Collection & Reporting Project
Northeastern University, Bureau of Justice Statistics


Gone Girls: Human Trafficking on the Home Front
Los Angeles Magazine

The Myth of the All-Girl, Pimp-Controlled Trafficking Trade
Dallas Observer

Running in the Shadows Pt. 1: Recession Drives Surge in Youth Runaways
The New York Times

Running in the Shadows Pt. 2: For Runaways, Sex Buys Survival
The New York Times

Star Tribune Saving Bobbi series:

Pt 1: A teen’s sex trafficking ordeal
Pt 2: Lured by drugs, used by pimps
Pt 3: One cop’s determination
Pt 4: Struggling to find a way forward

Selling American girls
Al Jazeera America

Studies of online child prostitution criticized for methodology
Minnesota Public Radio

Washington Post Fact Checker Series:

The bogus claim that 300,000 U.S. children are ‘at risk’ of sexual exploitation
The false claim that human trafficking is a ‘$9.5 billion business’ in the United States
The fishy claim that ‘100,000 children’ in the United States are in the sex trade
The Four-Pinocchio claim that ‘on average, girls first become victims of sex trafficking at 13 years old’
Loretta Lynch’s false claim on sex trafficking arrests